Protestant Women’s Organisations and the Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War of 1922-3 was fought by Irish nationalists over whether or not to accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The treaty had been signed in December 1921, following the War of Independence (1919-1921). During this period in Irish society, numbers of women engaging in organised activity outside of the home were small, but not insignificant. There were women actively engaged in the conflict, and there has been much discussion of their participation in politics and armed struggle. But there were also women active in public life whose activities were not political nor directly connected to the conflict, but that were still very much influenced by it. Many of these women were involved with religious societies that were ostensibly apolitical.

Immigration Control in Late Medieval England

Tensions about the rights of native and foreign-born workers in Britain, and attempts to deal with them, are not new but have been the subject of public debate for centuries. Even during the later Middle Ages, the influx of alien workers and its implications for the employment of English-born people was high on the agenda, provoking political crises and prompting the central government to issue new legislation.